Interviewee ID: 990001
Parent's name: Danzan
Year of Birth: 1944
Education: tusgai dund
Notes on education:
Born in: Altanbulag sum, Hyaraan sum, Selenge aimag
Lives in: Sühbaatar sum (or part of UB), Selenge aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
To read a full interview with Altangerel please click on the Interview ID below.
Summary of Interview 080201A with Altangerel by Erdenetuya
Collectivization began in 1948. It impoverished people. The propaganda at the time was that a collective force is more beneficial. But the process was illegal, harmful to people, and there was too much confiscated. Altangerel tells about the stages of collectivization. He tells how the tax system pushed people to “volunteer to join the collectives.”
The livestock taxes were set for five years without considering the changes that took place within those years, such as livestock death. Herdsmen were required to pay taxes on deceased livestock as if they had been living throughout the five-year period. Such taxation became a type of repression. Many people went to jail.
People’s reactions to collectivization differed based on their personal property. Some people had no livestock and benefited while the rich ones lost theirs. Altangerel tells about livestock segmentation in collective farms.
The term “state” began to be used widely. Everything, even the local milk factory, was seen as a “state” factory. Altangerel talks about the private (household-based) lots/production and the livestock that individual families were allowed to keep. He also tells about the differences between private and collective livestock.
He talks about the different kinds of the propaganda. Most was carried out by the state officials by going to individual families' gers and by talking to people. Then, he tells about the breakdown of collectives, the reasons and the time frame of the events. The collectives became state farms since the 1960s thus the state took over the collective property.
Summary of Interview 080305A with Altangerel by Erdenetuya
We talked about privatization with Altangerel.
Privatization started in 1992-93 and unfortunately it wasn't fair from the start. Livestock was distributed only to those who worked in the collectives and factory workers received a very small amount of money as their share. Many people did get not any benefits due to some factories going bankrupt, and many people did not understand about their shares when they invested them.
A few people bought stocks from people at a cheap price and then themselves bought large factories using the shares and became directors of the factory. Some of them were without any ability to manage large factories and some of them went bankrupt as a result. Apartments were privatized from 1998-2000 and apartments were given to those who owned them, while other people were left empty-handed.
Due to a lack of information about stock, only a few people benefited, and bought shops and factories with their supplies. There is no mechanism for accountability of the bankruptcy of companies and no political monitoring system, therefore many of the factories that were privatized were purposely bankrupted. Many workers lost their jobs and became poor due to the poor organization of privatization and people playing with stocks. As a result of privatization in the democracy period, there are now gaps between the rich and poor.