Interviewee ID: 990093
Parent's name: Namhai
Ovog: Ih Mongol
Year of Birth: 1945
Education: tusgai dund
Notes on education:
Born in: Bayandelger sum, Töv aimag
Lives in: Sühbaatar sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
To read a full interview with Tsend-Ayush please click on the Interview ID below.
Summary of Interview 090115A with Tsend-Ayush by Erdenetuya
Tsend-Ayush guai told many interesting facts about the repressions that happened between 1924 and 1990. In 1921 the People’s Revolution was victorious with the assistance of the Soviet Union and the Comintern policy began to be implemented in Mongolia. The repressions began in 1924. The head of the government of that time, the darga of the People’s Party Danzan and the darga of the Central Committee of the Union Bavaasan were executed under the pretext that they protested the Comintern policy, drawing away Mongolia from the Soviet Union. Since then the repression was been carried out step-by-step. Later ‘Lame’ Genden, the Prime Minister was executed for arguing with Stalin about developing Mongolia by its own characteristics and not just imitating Russia. Soon the policy of reducing the number the lamas was carried out and it was the beginning of the great repression period.
Repression continued between 1924 - 1990 in various forms and one out of three Mongolian households has been involved in this process, Tsend-Ayush guai said.
Though Choibalsan made decisions to arrest and kill following the instructions of the political leaders of the Comintern, in 1953 in order to get rid of the witness the Russians had Choibalsan be checked into a Russian hospital saying he had a kidney problem and he was killed there.
Since 1945 bloodless repressions have been carried out and it was all related with Japan and the Bogd Dalai Lama. The repression cases were related to following the policy of the capitalist countries like America. The lamas rioted to protect their own interests but all the lamas with a rank higher than ‘Gavj’ were executed.
The term ‘counter-revolutionary’ existed almost until 1990 and some of those who were repressed have been released after serving time in jail. They were employed but they were never appointed to a leading position. The state imposed overwhelming high taxes and consequently an economic repression was conducted. Those who didn’t fulfill the norms were imprisoned, movement within the country was limited and the people had no right to move at their will.
The Buriads were eliminated for almost two generations under the pretext of them being White (Russian) remnants and Japanese spies. Mostly only women and children were left.
Summary of Interview 090116A with Tsend-Ayush by Erdenetuya
Tsend-Ayush guai has taken a close part of the cultivation of virgin lands campaign since it was started in 1959. He also boxed and he won a bronze medal from the Asian Championship. In 1972 he took part in the Munich Olympics.
He used to play a lot of table tennis, football, baseball in secondary school. Before going to school the children played people’s traditional games developing their intellect and the physique. By the 1950s the people had developed in their minds the perception of the necessity of children to attend school.
The people initially disliked the collectives when they were first formed. They didn’t like that their livestock were collectivized without any compensation. Though they joined the collectives, an official tax imposed on their private livestock was increased and they were required to collectivize the livestock again. The herders didn’t like it. The cultural campaign was a necessary thing for education and health, concluded Tsend-Ayush guai.
Right after graduation we were appointed to work and it was very difficult to be employed by your own desire. It was tough to change your work. Those who changed their work many times weren’t well accepted.
In 1954 the roots to develop the tourism sector were laid. Foreign tourists started to visit the country to be introduced to hunting, nomadic civilization and the beautiful nature.
The then dargas and their subordinates’ relations were grave and the people in authority strived not to lose their power. The few dargas had become a well-off and oppressive class.
Boxing started in Mongolia in 1948 but it was stopped due to its mis-use by the people. Later, from 1967, there was official boxing training. In world history there was the Olympics where the Palestinians took 11 sportsmen hostage and shot them. It was called the black Olympics.
With the coming of democracy the people started going abroad freely and increasing their property. They started to live a free life and Tsend-Ayush guai said he was happy about it. The higher than mid-level dargas have gained a lot by privatization and the difference between rich and poor originates from this.