Interviewee ID: 990202
Parent's name: Manaljav
Year of Birth: 1936
Occupations: retired, herder
Notes on education:
Born in: Bayanlig sum, Bayanhongor aimag
Lives in: Sühbaatar sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
To read a full interview with Adiya please click on the Interview ID below.
Summary of Interview 090324A with Adiya by Tsetsegjargal
I was born in Bayanlig sum of Bayanhongor aimag. I was raised by my parents and at the age of 18 I got married and gave birth to eight children. I didn’t attend any school. My husband passed away in 1976. Since then I had been looking after my grandchildren in the sum centre, and when they came to the city to pursue higher education I came with them. My children bought me a house and they bring me food from the countryside. I live in such a way. In the 1950s the sum and the negdel dargas told us about establishing the negdels and insisted we join them. My grandparents said it was nice to join the negdel, and told us to join it. Therefore my husband and I joined in 1955. Then we collectivized our livestock and were left with a few private cattle. Before joining the negdel they used to take from us various taxes and it was very tough. People gladly joined the negdel because there was no such taxes and a salary was given if you joined. In 1954, 1955 most of the people joined the negdel. Initially 70 head of livestock were left per family, but several years later this was reduced to ten head. When joining the negdel, the sum and the bag darga counted the livestock and took them away, leaving the number of livestock to be tended and it was recorded, and the remaining livestock was shifted to another herder. At that time there were no newspapers and no press, therefore meetings were organized and the sum negdel dargas, the party members and the initial members talked a lot about forming negdels. Those who were reluctant to join were forced to do it, and in 1957, 1958 everyone had joined. By the end of the negdel movement some people merged their sheep into the others’ livestock and drove their camels to some places to hide them. There was a lot of rumor about it and eventually they were caught and punished.
The cooperatives were later expanded and they built buildings and planted vegetables. They developed a lot. The cooperative members tended the various livestock and were never short of the wool, hair and milk that they had to give and they received a salary. In socialist times 5 ails formed a base and all the camels were joined together and some tended the female camels, the others tended the male camels and the others, young camels. Each cooperative member had a member’s notebook where his bad and good things were written. When tending the cooperative livestock, there used to be a livestock census called ‘full spot checkup’. In case of a shortfall in the number of cattle, you had to pay it back.
The father of my deceased husband was a man named Jamangiin Chimid, who came from a rich lineage. I had lived till those days not breaking that lineage, being a good herder and having a good rich name. My children lead a wonderful life.