Interviewee ID: 990304
Parent's name: Gaanjuur
Year of Birth: 1940
Notes on education:
Born in: Shine-Ider sum, Hövsgöl aimag
Lives in: Bayangol sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
To read a full interview with Jadvaa please click on the Interview ID below.
Summary of Interview 090808A with Jadvaa by Sarantsetseg
G. Jadvaa was born in 1940. At age 10 he entered secondary school located in Shine-Ider sum, Hövsgöl aimag. In 1957 upon completion of 7th grade he entered the College of Economics and Finance. Graduating from college in 1960 he was ordered to work at the newly established state authority of inspection at Hövsgöl aimag. In 1966 he entered NUM, graduated in 1970 and worked in Selenge and Dundgovi aimag’s financial departments.
In the beginning part of the interview he narrates his life story, about Selenge aimag and working in the finance sector. At that time the financial agency worked against exceeding the allocated budget, generating income and if production met or exceeded the planned goals they were rewarded and vice versa: if they underperformed there were penalties. After having worked 30 years as the head of the accounting unit he says he was dismissed without “a goat to herd off, or even a dog to chase away”. He talks further about work and lives during socialism and how in the past each job had its own standards and how people upheld their duties and responsibilities in contrast to the present day priority given to individual rights.
In the middle part he talks about his childhood, parent - child relationships and state policies regarding education. During socialism the education system had a vertical structure with the Ministry of Education at the top gradually descending down to educational units in aimags and schools. The Institute under the Ministry of Education would be responsible for all educational materials and professional development of pedagogues. He also talks about repressions, how lamas from Nüht Hüree at Shine-Ider sum were captured and shot.
At the end of the interview he talks about the cultural campaign, how as a result of it personal hygiene improved, the level of mass education improved, spread of infectious diseases decreased and many other positive outcomes.
Summary of Interview 090808B with Jadvaa by Sarantsetseg
In the beginning of the interview he talks about the process of collectivization. The first negdel (collective) in Shine-Ider sum was formed in 1957 consisting of seven members. He gives a detailed description about how his father participated in founding the first negdel and how it developed over the years. He also mentions how those herders who did not want to join the negdel were driven away from their pasture land and how collectivization succeeded through pressuring the herders into increased allocation of plans to submit fuel, wool or milk.
In the middle part of the interview he talks about privatization - how the government announced the privatization process, how privatization committees were set up in sums which conducted an inventory of all livestock and other properties and distributed to the families pink certificates of privatization. For example those who had authority and were quick-witted accumulated the stocks of their acquaintances, and that way they were able to privatize large number of livestock. Also he gives a short account of the democratic movements that started in the 1990s. At the beginning of the movement people would come from the city to countryside and propagandize: “democracy will generate property for people, they will have money, the living standards will improve, they will have freedom, they will be liberated from the communists, and authoritarianism will be eliminated”.
At the end he talks about people with power. In those days people in power were strict, always exercised better accountability with their subordinates. He also talks about the introduction of new technologies during socialism, how ordinary people interacted with foreign countries and how religion was transformed.