Interviewee ID: 990137
Parent's name: Anonymous
Year of Birth: 1943
Notes on education:
Belief: a little religious
Born in: Bayanzürh sum, Ulaanbaatar aimag
Lives in: [None Given] sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: died
Father's profession: died
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privatization; authority; industrialization;
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Summary of Interview 080310A with Anonymous
Note: this summary combines summaries of both parts of this interview, 080310A and 080310B.
Socialism had its positive and negative things. There had been many splendid factories in Mongolia based on livestock husbandry. One of them was a big leather and hide factory collective of that time. At that time (the socialist period) the development of the nation had been planned by 5 year plans, and the qualified personnel were trained in the socialist countries. The majority of them were trained in the Soviet Union. Especially in the 1960s - 1970s the personnel were trained with great intensity. One of them was Ts. Javzmaa who successfully graduated from the Moscow Institute and she has linked her working career with the working class. In secondary school she studied with excellent marks for ten years in a row and she has met the requirements to become the ‘owner of 5 excellent marks’. She was one of those who spent her vacation in the ‘Artek’ pioneer summer camp in the Soviet Union. She is very fair-minded and straightforward and very modest, too. She is one of those intellectual people who have striven all their life with their hearts for the sake of the nation.
My husband retired having worked as a general engineer at the fur products factory, which is of the biggest factories in the entire compound of hide and leather factory conglomerate. He said that the privatization was carried out in the wrong way and consequently the whole factory, the state asset has been wasted. It was done wrongly due to a lack of understanding of the conception of privatization starting with the high-ranking people. The people who privatized were unprofessional and the people who lived in the socialist society had the mentality that it was OK to take away personal or others’ things without approval. All this was an obstacle to develop industry. Such a very interesting small part of the nation’s history of development you can find in this interview.
This interview part has two summaries. The second follows.
The interview is about a leather and fur factory during socialism and the process of privatization. The interviewee is a former employee of the factory who has worked there for thirty years.
During socialism, there were 13 different factories that processed leather, fur, and hide from different animals, like goat, sheep, and cattle. There were also five or six factories that processed wool and made woolen products. These also included research centers, repair factories, cleaning facilities, laboratories, and shoe and garment factories. The interview describes the factories, their functions, and differences. Then the interviewer tells about the stages of processing of raw materials from livestock and the making of the final products. The products ranged from coats and hats to other garments and lot of them were exported to other countries. The workers were trained in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Soviet Union, and other places.
Privatization happened in 1990 and 1991. Factories were the first assets to be privatized, and then livestock. Tells about the process of privatization from inside. The first thing most ordinary people did (and which became a problem for their impoverishment) was that they sold their vouchers [in effect, shares] to the directors and accountants of the factories. Also, the new owners fired the existing workers and recruited his acquaintances and friends and had the interviewee become a director. But due to new untrained outsiders who had little or no knowledge about the production, the products and revenues suffered and she decided to leave. The factories lost all the professional staff. There were a lot of stock of raw materials, tools, machines and equipment, solutions, notions, buttons, zippers, locks, and various accessories for bags, shoes, and other garments. The new owners also divided this all up among themselves. They also extracted money from the state under the name of helping their employees, laundered money, and used the workers salaries by lending to other individuals to charge interest, and did not use banks.