Basic information
Interviewee ID: 990012
Name: Tserennadmid
Parent's name: Loohuuz
Ovog: Bargachin
Sex: m
Year of Birth: 1936
Ethnicity: Halh

Additional Information
Education: elementary
Notes on education: baga bolovsrol
Work: retired
Belief: Buddhist
Born in: Züünbüren sum, Selenge aimag
Lives in: Sühbaatar sum (or part of UB), Selenge aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder

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collectivization; work; privatization; industrialization; childhood;

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Summary of Interview 080503A with Tserennadmid

The first 5 year plan was announced in 1946-1950 and those who lost livestock, had to pay a certain amount of meat and milk. Even if there was a drought or zud, the obligation was not exempted. In the second 5 year plan it was changed and the obligation of meat and milk were estimated in accordance with the number of livestock the family had at the moment of estimation. Her family gave some of their cattle to other families in order to lessen the obligations.

Tserennadmid started working as a worker at the match factory, which was established in 1956. The wood processing factory was established in 1959 and the flour factory in 1960 in Selenge aimag. The match factory was under the Forest Ministry and at first everything was done manually and it became fully automated in 1976.

During the collective movement, agitators visited households and insisted they join the collective. By joining the collective, herders started getting a salary of 130 tögrögs, apart from incentives, and if they needed to take a sheep for food, they had to write an application to the head of the collective and get permission to pay for it from their salary. At first people did not want to join the collective, but there was no pasture for those who owned livestock privately and the collective gave good benefits, so people started joining the collective. The collective sold animal husbandry products and paid its members money gained from the sale. The state set up obligations for the collectives. In order to complete this task, the collective set up norms for its workers. For instance, each milker had a task 120 liter per 1 cow for month. Tserennadmid said that if anyone wanted to leave collective it was allowed for them to take their own livestock by submitting an application.

At that time, there were Chinese in Selenge and people bought vegetables from them. The collective did not push its members to take vegetables instead of their salary. Cereals were planted in Selenge and they made flour with a hand-mill.

After privatization, those who submitted their coupons to these factories received dividends of 70 percent of profits for around 2 years, but later the factories were bankrupted It was difficult period when Government resolution No 20 was issued and food was purchased by coupons (ie, rationed).