Interviewee ID: 990020
Parent's name: Choindon
Ovog: Har bürged
Year of Birth: 1943
Notes on education:
Born in: Buyant sum, Hovd aimag
Lives in: Darhan sum (or part of UB), Darhan-Uul aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
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collectivization; work; childhood; herding / livestock; family;
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Summary of Interview 080702A with Horloo
When Horloo was a child, many of her family's livestock died of cow-pox. When she saw the veterinary doctor, who diagnosed disease of goats and treated livestock, she wanted to have a good professional as well. It was difficult for families with few members to buried animals who had died of disease into a three meter-deep pit as was mandatory. At that time, girls married when they reached the age of 14. Children at that time had good family upbringing; parents had good relations, and taught their children to do everything necessary for their lives.
During the 5 year plan periods herders did not have a right to use meat, milk and wool of their cattle and have to give milk for their milk allotment, send male sheep for the meat allotment, and for wool, it had to be 80% wool, so they had to clean it to fulfill the obligation. Households who could not complete the allotments gave money to other households to cover for their allotments. In addition, each family had to pay tax on livestock. If they used two sheep for food, then taxes were assigned per head. Her parents became very poor and they even did not have boots to wear during the second 5 year plan. People’s interest in herding decreased due to the taxes and obligations. Then the collectives started and they called a meeting and made people sit there until they agreed to join the collective. The collectives chose only good livestock when they collectivized them several times. You were forced to join the collectives and families with only a few livestock were happy to join the collective. The collectives assigned the number of livestock to households according to the number of family members. They also had an obligation to provide certain amounts of meat, milk, fat and wool.
In primary school, pen and paper were very rare and they had to provide meat in order to stay in a dormitory. School was in a building and some teachers were the same age as their students because they became teachers after graduating the 4th grade. If any children did excellent in the school, they were awarded by sugar, an ink well, and so forth. After graduating from the Teacher’s Institute in 1964, she worked as a mathematics teacher in Gobisumber, and school children often ran away. Besides the work at the school, mothers had to raise their children, so she was very busy at that time.