Interviewee ID: 990035
Parent's name: Sambuu
Year of Birth: 1936
Ethnicity: Ard Halh
Notes on education:
Born in: Guchin-us sum, Övörhangai aimag
Lives in: Sühbaatar sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
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collectivization; work; privatization; education / cultural production; democracy;
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Summary of Interview 080710A with Ayush
The collective movement took place from 1935 - 1959. At first, two collectives named “Aldar” (Fame), and “Power of partnership” were established and later these two were combined. At the start of the collective, the herders’ salary was given in meat, milk and milk products. The collective was self-financed. The collective became stronger after implementing some measures such as fencing, watering and the provision of hay and forage in 1969. The collective had an industry brigade and they did construction, also sewing, and made bread and cookies. State farms and the collective were separate. People who reached 16 years of age could became a members of the collective. Those who had livestock could join the collective by collectivizing their cattle and those who did not have livestock could join by submitting an application. If the members of the collective did something wrong and made mistakes, they were punished by being discussed at an administrative meeting. There was a rule which allowed 50 livestock for people who live in the hangai region and 75 livestock for those who live in the gobi region.
The collective’s director and head of the inspection commission were elected from the collective’s board members. The board members were responsible for organizing daily activities of the collective.
The collective distributed livestock to households according to the number of family members. Households decided themselves what type of livestock they would take. The norms to take from the livestock were decided by zoo-technicians. The plan to submit meat, milk, wool to the state from the collective was estimated by the total of the household norms. The collective was responsible for all services at the sum level. There was an inter-collective rest-house at the sum. Also, an inter-cooperative milk factory collected milk from the milkers and processed and prepared cream. Households took the milk that remained from the processing. The salary was estimated in separate account. The average cost for herding per head was 20 möngö. The living standards of households was almost same. Grass and forage for the livestock was provided by the collective. The League committee was the youth organization of the collective and it mobilized young people for social activities.
During privatization, the collective to which the interviewee belonged privatized its livestock. A limited company was established using the money left in the account of the collective and its equipment and it is working until now. They said that the profits will be shared, but they do not give Ayush his share. The other buildings of the collective were destroyed. Ayush said that the number of livestock decreased and materials and equipment disappeared due to incorrect privatization.