Basic information
Interviewee ID: 990057
Name: Dulmaa
Parent's name: Gochoo
Ovog: Namtai
Sex: f
Year of Birth: 1932
Ethnicity: Buriad

Additional Information
Education: higher
Notes on education:
Work: retired (ih emch)
Belief: Buddhist
Born in: Eröö sum, Selenge aimag
Lives in: Bayanzürh sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder

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repressions; education / cultural production; collectivization; work; illness / health;

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Summary of Interview 081202A with Dulmaa

Dulmaa’s father, father’s brother, and father’s brother-in-law and many other people were arrested by accusing them of being a Japanese spy, or part of Genden and Demid’s plot. Also, all property including cattle were confiscated. Dulmaa said that the belongings might be shared among those who took them away. In order to survive, their families were cutting a lot of hay in the autumn and brought wood from the mountain and sold them in Altanbulag. During the repression, people called “Green Hat” (ie, the secret police) had a duty to arrest a certain number of people, so in order to complete their duty, they arrested ordinary herders. Those who arrested at nights usually were shot and if arrested during the day time, they were usually prosecuted and jailed. Inspectors were very aggressive. His father was jailed for 10 years and worked at Ugtaal state farm; they worked for long hours.

Dulmaa talked about Tömör-Ochir, Nyambuu, Loohuuz, and Surmaajav who were repressed. A lot of pressure and discrimination was put on their families and their children were not allowed to go to school abroad. They were exiled and worked as herders. During socialism, the rehabilitation commission was established and was headed by Genden, but it was somehow related to the reputation of high-level people, so closed down soon.

The first 5 year plan was named after Choibalsan and according to this plan, households had a duty to submit milk, wool, cashmere and meat and if these duties are not completed, they were punished. So, many people committed suicide or went to jail.

In 1960s, there was a children’s hospital with 500 beds in Ulaanbaatar, but later 4 more children’s hospitals with 100 beds were established in 4 districts in the capital.

In 1956, during the collectivization movement, there was a forced collectivization and in Ömnögobi about 150 head of livestock were left for households who had about 1000 cattle. Later, those who collectivized their cattle wished to claim them during the privatization, but it was not allowed because they did not work in the collective. Also, people did not know about blue and pink vouchers and some people sold them for one bottle of vodka. There was no advocacy and information even on TV, so only a few people who were aware about it and clever benefited from this privatization.