Basic information
Interviewee ID: 990178
Name: Anonymous
Parent's name: Anonymous
Ovog: Anonymous
Sex: m
Year of Birth: 1946
Ethnicity: Halh

Additional Information
Education: incomplete secondary
Notes on education: This most likely means 7 years of schooling.
Work: retired
Belief: Buddhist
Born in: Bayantsagaan sum, Bayanhongor aimag
Lives in: Bayanzürh sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: veterinarian

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education / cultural production; family; work; collectivization; democracy;

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Summary of Interview 090408A with Anonymous

Anonymous was born in1948 in Baatsagaan sum of Bayanhongor aimag. His father was a veterinarian. His mother tended the collective livestock. When he was small, his parents used to teach him not to pollute the springs or damage trees. The moment the children reached the age of eight, a school notification came to send the children to school, but the people aged 16, 17 also attended the first grade. While he was at school, the Mongolian physicians followed the Russian physicians to do health check-ups quite often. In the beginning of 1960 the construction sector developed intensely, so the soldiers were sent to construction sites and those who had finished the seventh grade were appointed to study at the construction vocational school.

During the cultural campaign there was a slogan to give everyone four years of education. Therefore disregarding their wishes, the ‘ails’ sent their children to school and right after completion of the fourth grade they took them from it. In the countryside the traveling teachers used to teach classes to the groups (ie, informally, outside of school).

They gave over 300 small livestock to a collective. In 1958 during the repeated collectivization it was instructed that the Gobi region herders were to have 75 head and the sum center officials to have 16 head of livestock. All work was done by group power in the collective.

During the cultural campaign each ‘ail’ was instructed to have the listed ten things. In case the ‘ails’ didn’t meet the requirements and the hygiene was bad, they would be charged. Agitations and propaganda were often organized.

The people followed the resolutions of the party. At the state examinations the students were even asked about the speeches of Tsedenbal.

In 1962, 1963 a diesel engine was introduced into their sum and the ‘ails’ acquired electricity. Hospitals were free of charge. In 1950 the medical science was developed quite well in Mongolia. The children of the dargas and the children of the teachers differed completely. Even their clothes differed. There used to be separate special stores for dargas. At that time the people were paid according to the work they did. They received their salary according to their rank and the price of goods was low, therefore it was sufficient for life. There were savings within the brigade. There used to be lots of Russian goods and the Chinese goods had ceased to be imported after 1975.

In the 1960s there used to be a film mechanic who packed his apparatus on a camel and traveled to sums and brigades to show the films.

In 1960 Loohuuz, Nyambuu and Surmaajav guai opposed Tsedenbal and the three of them headed the meetings protesting the cult of personality. They were convicted. There was no right to criticize the high level state officials. He considers it is correct for people to have freedom with the coming of democracy.