Interviewee ID: 990475
Parent's name: Dari
Ovog: Leglüd Hövdüüd
Year of Birth: 1930
Notes on education:
Born in: Ömnö-Delger sum, Hentii aimag
Lives in: Tsenher-Mandal sum (or part of UB), Hentii aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
Themes for this interview, suggested by the interview team, are:
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life in wartime; repressions; collectivization; privatization; funerals;
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childhood; schoolchildren's life; mother - father; repression; cultural campaigns; mining; Russians; agricultural industry; official regulations; belief; work - labor; consumer goods; Party member; men and women; authority; funeral rituals; privatization; nature and environment;
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To read a full interview with Tsendayush please click on the Interview ID below.
Summary of Interview 091203A with Tsendayush
Tsend-Ayush was born in 1931 as the first son of Dari in Tseej Tusgal of Mörön sum of Hövsgöl aimag. In 1940-1944 he attended the sum elementary school. His parents are Agin Buryats. He worked in the Haalga mine in Dornogovi in the 1950s and had worked for three years in the Jargalanthaan mine with Inner Mongolians. He returned home and worked as a separator in the Modot mine. In 1957 he went to work at the agricultural machinery station. In 1960, he attended a tractor combine driver’s training.
In war-time the elementary school classes were conducted in a ger. The school materials, the notebooks and pens were rare and along with classes they had military training and they were taught to dismantle rifles and a machine gun. They lacked food and the parents didn’t have much interest in teaching the children. But the children’s upbringing was very good. They didn’t run near their elders and they stood quietly when their elders passed by. They knocked on the door when visiting ails. The children were good and active at their classes.
But the children of the repressed were called ‘counter-revolutionaries’ (esergüü) though they didn’t even know the meaning of the word. They had been maltreated and it wasn’t possible nor did they have the right to use the name of their father. It had been said that the young people who were arrested were sentenced to ten years but the old people were all shot. At that time the people felt sorry for them and regretted what happened, though they didn’t dare to say it openly.
Though the collectives taught the people to cooperate, it also gave them the mindset of being inactive. In the time of the collectives, the cattle barns, haymaking and the grass were all sufficient but there the herders had no power. Those who had few livestock [before collectivization] voluntarily joined the collective, whereas the people who had many of them joined it because of the livestock and the meat and milk taxes. Tsend-Ayush collectivized his cattle that he inherited from his father and the livestock of his parents-in-law, but didn’t get anything back from privatization. He received an old cow without a calf from a transportation agency.
When someone died, there used to be a ‘corpse attendant’[lit: yaschin]. If they couldn’t find a ‘corpse attendant’, a family member went to pull loose his cart wheel and rode a camel to take the dead and then he came back. In recent times we bury people together [ie, in a cemetery], which we got from the Russians.