Interviewee ID: 990548
Parent's name: Shangashbai
Year of Birth: 1935
Notes on education: engineer, economics
Born in: Ulaanhus sum, Bayan-Ölgii aimag
Lives in: Ölgii sum (or part of UB), Bayan-Ölgii aimag
Mother's profession: housewife
Father's profession: herder
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repressions; foreign relations; industrialization; privatization; democracy;
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Summary of Interview 100903A with Jukei
During Jukei guai’s father's and grandFather's time there used to be many Russian traders in Ulaanhus sum of Bayan-Ölgii aimag. They shipped the collected goods to Biisk. There were two main tribes (ovog) of Kazakhs in this sum, the Shirüüshigch and Jentihigch. During the revolution the Shirüüshigch were connected with the Russians and when the ‘Whites’ came in from the Chinese side, the Kazakhs were divided into two. Consequently there was a battle at Tolbo Lake and Jukei guai talked about it in great detail. The Bayan-Ölgii Kazakhs basically came from Xinjiang. Until 1934 the border wasn’t established, therefore there were many cases of raiding.
Jukei guai became the aimag newspaper editor-in-chief in 1940. His father was arrested in 1941 as a counter-revolutionary, and having written many petition letters he become known as a Partisan of 1921, and was released in 1947. At that time many literate Kazakhs were arrested. The people had distant and cool relations with the children of the counter-revolutionaries. Talking about the school, Jukei guai said it had small dormitory and there were bunk beds. There used to be Mongolian and Kazakh schools.
The main buildings of Ulaanbaatar were the theatre and the State department Store, and the Chinese used to live at the west side of the State Department Store. The city had a Chinese style of life.
When Jukei guai came to his aimag after graduating from the University, a thermal power station was to be built by the Czechs therefore he was sent on a training course to Czechoslovakia. At that time capitalism was gradually coming in to Czechoslovakia. When he returned to Mongolia to work, the Czechs also came to work there.
Concerning democracy, he thinks that those who call themselves democrats were not well versed in it theoretically, and Jukei guai learned the difference between democracy and socialism from reading from Ünen newspaper. He considers freedom was obtained thanks to democracy.
There used to be special informers who worked at the Ministry of Public Security. Since the 1960s a horror had been eliminated.
Jukei guai said that, people's lives had greatly changed first, through the cultural campaign and, second, the establishment of handicraft arteli.
The Kazakhs have worshipped their Muslim religion since ancient times and during the socialist period the religious organizations’ activities stopped. In 1990 when the mosque was being established, people aged about forty used to come to be registered.
Concerning privatization, their organization had 1500 workers but basically only three of them divided the property.