Interviewee ID: 990550
Parent's name: Baljhai
Year of Birth: 1945
Education: some elementary
Notes on education: graduated 4th grade
Born in: Tsengel sum, Bayan-Ölgii aimag
Lives in: Ölgii sum (or part of UB), Bayan-Ölgii aimag
Mother's profession: herder
Father's profession: herder
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childhood; foreign relations; military; environment; belief;
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Summary of Interview 100905A with Mankia
This interview was given by two people Bayantsagaan and Mankia.
When Mankia guai went to elementary school, there was Tseren bagsh, but the children didn’t know Mongolian so a Tuvan teacher came to replace him. When she was small, she saw a truck and she cried fearing it would eat her up.
Bayantsagaan guai was a frontier guard therefore Mankia guai followed him to Hovd aimag and they lived at the border. The People’s Great Hural passed a resolution on giving work to women living at the border and it approved three vacancies, as a result of which she attended a 45-day training course and became a cook. Since then she has had many jobs. In the 1960s when she came to the border, the frontier guards lived at the posts and it was the time when the frontier boundaries had just been established. When establishing the border, cement columns were raised and the military detachments that were abolished in the 1950s were re-organized. When first establishing the border a survey was made within 5 km of the border of the both sides. When they went to Hovd’s Bulgan sum, Kazakh and Mongolian ‘ails’ lived together and because of pasture lands there used to be many disputes.
There were no kindergartens and nurseries at the border therefore Mankia guai brought up her children during the free time from work. But there were many uneducated and jobless women. She retired from the border military therefore the apartment they live in is owned by them but there’s no more support.
It was generally prohibited to celebrate Tsagaan Sar but still the people worshiped the ovoo during Tsagaan Sar and they secretly worshiped their religion. When joining the revolutionary party she was registered as Urianhai nationality, as it was said there was no Tuvan nationality.
In 1910 many Tuvans moved from China. Until the collectivization some Tuvan people had lived by hunting.
When talking about nature, they said it had become colder and the rivers are polluted.