Nanzai


Basic information
Interviewee ID: 990903
Name: Nanzai
Parent's name: [blank]
Ovog: [blank]
Sex: f
Year of Birth: 1943
Ethnicity: [unknown]

Additional Information
Education: [unknown]
Notes on education:
Work:
Belief:
Born in: Hyargas sum, Uvs aimag
Lives in: sum (or part of UB), Ulaanbaatar aimag
Mother's profession:
Father's profession:


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Translation:



The Oral History of Twentieth Century Mongolia

-

Nanzai -

Okay, mother was born in 1943, in the year of Sheep.

Narmandah -

Aa, daughter Narmandakh born in 66, year of Horse.

Odmandah -

Youngest daughter Odmandakh, born in 1980, year of Monkey.

Mönhtüvshin -

Son Munkhtuvshin, born in 1970, year of Dog.

Byambajav -

Well, I am very grateful to you all for accepting my invitation and giving me this interview. Since it is a family interview will you please, in turn, one by one tell about your childhood recollections? Shall we start from the mother?

Nanzai -

(laughs)

Byambajav -

About the childhood, about your children, their childhood years …

Nanzai -

Аа, about them? Well, they all have already told you earlier about their childhood years so there is no need to talk about it now, isn’t it so?

Byambajav -

Yes, yes.

Odmandah -

Yes.

Byambajav -

Memories that you cherish in your heart since their tender ages …

Nanzai -

Aan ha, Let me start now from my son, (All laugh) Our Munkhtuvshin from his infancy was a very meticulous child, very neat, he used to pick up litters on the carpet and on the floor by hand, generally extremely clean and neat, he cleaned his clothes very well. And he was very economically minded child since childhood not like now, I don’t know what is up now. In my mind this aspect of him seems to be declining a little bit. He grew up and is abandoning some of his childhood habits, this is what I have in mind. Well, as for Odmandakh of ours, the youngest daughter Odmandakh, Odmandakh since her infancy attended kindergarten. Since her infancy she was always with me wherever I go. Even her father used to tease me saying that I was like a lamb …no like a “ Mare with a foal” (All laughed) That was the name her father gave us. She used to go with me everywhere, led by her hand. Even after she grew up and was enrolled in school, we went together that way. Then since childhood she was a somewhat capricious child, how should I describe, wanted everything according to her own wish, may be not capricious, but was a rather self-willed child.

Byambajav -

Intelligent and pampered daughter.

Nanzai -

She was intelligent, but rather spoiled child. Are you, Oogii. Pampered, yes, without any distinction they were all pampered…no distinction, we did not pay lesser attention to anyone, our living standard allowed us to be like that, they never lacked daily meal and other items of necessity nor clothes. And then when they were small I used to sew myself their clothes. I made dresses and garments for Odmandakh, Narmandakh according to the style and fashion of the time. Didn’t I?

Narmandah -

An ha.

Nanzai -

Yes. Even today we keep many garments and dress which I sewed for Naraa and OOgii. Naraa wore blouses and sleeveless jacket I made for her when she was a student, so my children wore clothes sewed by me since childhood. (0-03-34) Of course, we did buy some from the stores. They wore clothes and were dressed up to the extent of our possibilities. As for our Naraa, Naraa had a headache since childhood, she was still very young and we did not know what was the cause of that illness, when she was studying in the institutes she still had a slight headache. That is why when the institute decided, when she was a 3rd year student, to divide her group into groups dealing with milk, meat and flour. When the groups were thus separated her father said “Oh she likes milk, she has a headache and therefore she likes to drink tea, let her go near the milk and tea.” And advised her to take the group on milk she entered the group on milk.(laughed) But later we thought that she should have taken a different group other than the milk.

Narmandah -

But until now I have not been able to work on milk production. So…

Nanzai -

Yes, But now there are not so factories producing milk products, there is only one milk factory. Now…

Byambajav -

But now, there are a number of small factories that process milk and produce dairy products as well as ice creams.

Narmandah -

Yeah,

Byambajav -

You can run such a factory.

Narmandah -

It is possible. Now, I made an attempt but it was not very successful. However, it was long ago. Now, it can be done, if I really try,

Nanzai -

Naraa and her husband tried their hands on many different undertakings, they made an attempt to produce milk ice cream,

Odmandah -

They had a try at producing soft drinks,

Nanzai -

Yes, they tried producing soft drinks, at what else did my daughter tried her hand, baking bread and pastries, she tried doing many different things, so my dear daughter has been experimenting on many different activities. However, the time (Narmandakh laughs) was not opportune yet and you can’t achieve what you wanted. And when you want to do something availability of money(fund), in addition, access to market and many other issues rise. Then it requires professional knowledge, that is the situation fro the time being. She began her business by baking pastries (гөөхий) at home, did you? Also baked “moon cake” at home. Odmandakh from her very young age used to go to Khailaast, to bus station No.7. In the morning a tiny thing would get out and went to the market (All laughed), there she helped her elder sister, She left very early, my daughter from childhood had been helping her elder sister, I hope her sister appreciates it. After her lessons she went out without rest on Saturdays and Sundays, a tiny thing went to the market. (All laugh) I did not say any thing bad about my daughter earlier, simply my daughter was such a pampered child. She was the smallest and the youngest therefore we pampered too much and spoiled. Yes, she was attending the kindergarten and when I combed and made her hairs, she used to say this was wrong and that was wrong now you should comb this way.(All laugh)

Byambajav -

Why don’t you talk about the other son? He may feel hurt, yeah?

Nanzai -

Well, our Batmounkh (0-07-08) is a nice boy. Baagii is really a nice peaceable and honest man. He doesn’t speak much, a man few words. Аа, he will not enter into various kinds of squabbles, in general.

Mönhtüvshin -

Generally, he is quite like the people on mother’s side.

Nanzai -

My father was such a man, this son of mine is very tall, so on my side he copied my father, in the interview earlier(Narmandakh coughs) I told you that my father was such a tall man.

Byambajav -

Yes.

Nanzai -

They called him Undur Tseelei…

Byambajav -

Called Undur Tseelei…

Nanzai -

Yes, so apparently he is like him. My father was such a person. Actually, he doesn’t speak very much. He would reluctantly participate in something but he says on rare occasions very weighty words. He is so tall just as my father, in general, apparently he is a copy of my father. That is it, probably he is very much alike of him. Yes.

Mönhtüvshin -

Probably elder sister and Batgaa these two almost certainly are alike him. As for two us we are more alike people of father’s side (laughs)

Nanzai -

Yes, it is, true, true..

Byambajav -

And the facial features of the two of you are very similar. (Laughs)

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, two of us are resemble more of my father’ side, my youngest sister and me, and my elder sister and the younger brother next to me, my brother born after me Batmounkh, mother was talking about him earlier, he and this sister are very similar to the people on my mother’s side. We are a kind of people who are very honest and if they take up something even it is not very successful, they are very determined and try to make it possible. (All laughed) So they pursue that cause determinedly but not always succeed in their undertakings. So at the end they abandon it, this has become their habit.

Nanzai -

Hn, why do you say such a thing.

Mönhtüvshin -

Аа, two of us are also different. Odmandakh and me accomplish what we wanted to do, may be it is the fruit of that so we are determined to carry on further and succeed.(All laugh)

Nanzai -

You shouldn’t say that your elder sister did not succeed. Your sister does also…

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, sister does…

Nanzai -

..she works very diligently and somehow …

Mönhtüvshin -

My sister is okay, I told about my sister, I told also about my family. Well, I can say what I personally think of my sister, my sister is very industrious, if she takes up something she’ll persistently engage in it, no matter what, whether it is successful or not, she is bent to see the end result, that is my sister. As for my younger brother he is exactly like my sister, my dear brother will also persistently do that thing, if he does something (0-09-32) it is done exactly in the way he wanted it to be done.

Nanzai -

Of good quality.

Mönhtüvshin -

He makes things of very high quality, if he wants to make a furniture, say a shelf he makes it earnestly as something for his own use. He does not do things casually, even if he is making the money on the side, he would do it as if he is doing it at home. This is the character of my brother, my brother next to me (born after me). Well, what I can say about my youngest sister. I would only say to her work and work harder. She is just like me she’d say anything she wants, if she doesn’t like something, she is extremely self-willed.(All laugh)

Nanzai -

She scolds.

Mönhtüvshin -

She’d scold, even her elder brother. Yes, if displeased, she’d scold her brother straight away. So I know that she’d do that. Yes. (All laughed) I am used to it (All laughed) all ready. Of course, I agree to what she says. Speaking about my elder sister I can say that she is a good person, she is determined to achieve the goal set before her, when takes up something she does an extremely good job. I am not praising my sister, she does everything earnestly, does a truly good job…

Byambajav -

She works assiduously, isn’t she?

Nanzai -

Yes. She tries various activities.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, various things, my sister works with determination, I value that quality of her. The assistance and help of my sister play an important part in at in that we, our family, are living this much good and in such a degree. I think that her part is relatively high, 70 percent out of the 100 (0-11-09) is the fruit of the hard labour of sister. I take advantage of this opportunity to say it to my sister.

Nanzai -

I told you earlier that our Bagii is extremely meticulous. There are many things made by our Bagii, he is always there for everything good or bad, he has skilful hands. He can do almost anything. Specially, all the repairs and refurbishments are done by Bagii only. He always does the maintenance and repairs of the apartment and comes to help in every undertakings of Naraa, visits her at home and helps her. He went to the summer house and constructed a house and refurbished it, that poor person works very hard for his brother and sisters. I always feel pity for my son. And when he was constructing the summer house for you, he was all in dust and dirt, building your summer house….

Narmandah -

At Maikhan tolgoi (Tent Hillock)…

Nanzai -

Maikhan tolgoi, at first in the vicinity of that place there was not a single house. It is a place far from here, when the construction was about to start he did not care at all the rain, we visited him often in the morning he would be resting in his tent, he did not complain at all. He was watching over the building materials, at first the construction materials were brought to the site so he spent there a few days. Then building workers were brought in and together they built the house. He was intent at building a superb house, otherwise, for him it was no good. So he even plastered the outside of the house with putty, plastered as the interior of the house and painted it. But, it is impossible to plaster the exterior of the house by patty. But when you look at it now the plaster all crumbled here and there, softened (by rain water) it ran down. What he had in mind was to make the house very beautiful. And he expected that it will remain like that, the putty(0-13-25) (Paris) plaster intact in its place. Yeah, in this manner he tries very hard, then he would not allow strangers to touch the apartment (for repairs). Just before he left last year Baagii did some incomplete maintenance work in hurry, but now our apartment needs a good repair works. If Baagii was here he would have done it, since Baagii is not here, probably these repairs will be done after he comes back, if possible we would like the repairs made before that but he never feels satisfied by others’ work.

Byambajav -

Oh, yeah.

Nanzai -

Yes. He always wants to do things by his own hands, until he is satisfied by the result. And it takes time to accomplish the job. So I scold him, just before he left one year ago he made a repair of the apartment. (0-14-10) So he used to sit contemplating the work (what to do), he just sat looking at it. Apparently he was thinking how he could do in the best way. I used to nag him finish quickly it is difficult everything is dirty, dusty and … finish the work quickly, he used to say don’t get angry, it would be done, it’d be done he was so calm, then…

Byambajav -

Apparently he was developing a plan in his mind? (All laugh)

Nanzai -

Yes, he did, in general, he does something meticulously, our Bagii. Very meticulous. So he is such a kind of person. As for our Moogii, well, he is not that good in carpentry,

Mönhtüvshin -

poor, poor. (All laugh) Well, I can’t lie, that is it, most importantly we are now speaking about Baagii but I think that I can’t but mention here my brother-in-law,

Byambajav -

You can.

Nanzai -

You are right my son.

Mönhtüvshin -

Our brother-in-law is also fairly skilful, I would like to speak about him, so many years have passed since he joined our family. My brother-in-law is very skilful. It was him who built for me the enclosure and even the house. Aa, then what I would like to say is that also quite skilful just like Baagii. He does something like him earnestly, his work is always of high quality. As the mother told about Batgaa, he is just like him, I don’t have anything to show you right now in any case if he wanted he can actually make repairs of the apartment and various other things. I think that, in general, he is quite similar to him (Baagii). He does everything in all honestly (0-15-58) he can fix any problem with a car, much quicker than me, as for the vehicles are concerned hew repair it in no time.

Nanzai -

Char (sic), he knows very well, has a very good knowledge.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, he is an engineer by profession, I am a mechanic but still when I watch my brother-in-law he is very quick grasping what has to be done, say by turning this screw this could be done etc, I would think it over for some time before doing, but he grasps what has to be done in no time, he is a quick thinker, my brother-in-law, I would also like to take this opportunity to say that I am grateful to my brother-in-law.

Nanzai -

We should be grateful, of course, we are grateful to him. My son-in-law is a very calm and good person. Purevdorj (is his name) is always there whenever something happens, my dear son, he is, usually, everywhere and help us. By his nature, he doesn’t keep distance from us. Except my children I speak and consult with him whenever something crops up, we all discuss the issue amongst us in our family, my son-in-law and my children are all the members of our family. Yes, aren’t they? .

Byambajav -

Yes, it is.

Nanzai -

Yes. Therefore, whenever various good or bad things happen we all go there together …

Byambajav -

Actually, a family is a closely-knit collective hard to find anywhere else.

Nanzai -

Yes.

Byambajav -

Just like an organisation.

Nanzai -

Yes, it is.

Byambajav -

The Mother is the Director, (All laugh)

Nanzai -

I am the Director of the home. (Laughs)

Byambajav -

Eldest brother is the Prime Minister. (All laugh))

Nanzai -

Eldest brother is the Prime Minister. Is he The Prime Minister? But at times he gets on my nerves.

Byambajav -

It is natural because he has been ousted many times.

Nanzai -

That is what I said earlier. He used to be the most important person in our family, the most meticulous and very serious about everything he has to deal with, but of late he has been rather mediocre, and embracing a rather uncertain road.

Mönhtüvshin -

When I now think at that time my father and mother were receiving very good salaries, they were intellectuals and had good salaries, each of them received 700 tögrög, more than 700 that time.

Nanzai -

Your father received more than 1000.

Mönhtüvshin -

Father received more than 1000. So I thought “Well, father receives over 1000, mother receives 700. So it makes 700, 1400 tugrug. But why my father and mother had not been able even to buy a nice carpet.” And I expressed this idea many times (All laughed) to my father and mother. I even said let me try to be in charge of your money, I did not take charge of it. Actually, since mother was there, it made no sense for me to be in charge of the family spending and also my father was there. When members of our family was all present during a Saturday and Sunday I once aired this idea to them. That 1400 our parents were receiving was a lot of money.

Nanzai -

It was 700, 1700

Mönhtüvshin -

So with that 1700 tugrug our family did not buy anything valuable. I don’t know on what they spent the money. What did they buy to spend it (All laughed) I was astonished (0-19-05). And I told once to my father and mother, I said to both of you once, not many times …

Nanzai -

We ate it, ate and bought clothes for you all, it was only sufficient for that.

Mönhtüvshin -

Therefore, generally…

Nanzai -

We could not buy something more than that.

Mönhtüvshin -

Probably, it was the case during the socialist period. There was no way of going abroad. Only in 90 the Chinese boarder was opened, in 90 the market economy was introduced and people began to travel to the south. Before that there was no such thing. Aa, I remember mother once travelled north up to Moscow. My mother went to Moscow with 500 rubles. That was a huge sum at that time. (All laughed) The exchange rate was 3 tugrug, even if you calculate at 5 tugrug, she went with about 2500 tugrug. So what could she bring from the journey that time? It was not possible bring clothes and other items for sale at the market as today. So she brought (0-20-02) plenty of fruits and vegetables. Her hobby(he meant she liked it) was vegetable. So from childhood following the example of my mother, as far I am concerned I have got strong liking to, or hobby of vegetables (liked). My father, our late father also ate vegetable very much. He also liked fish.

Byambajav -

Fruits?

Mönhtüvshin -

Yeah, fruits, in general an inclination towards them(fruits and vegetable).

Nanzai -

Luxury foods…

Mönhtüvshin -

On Saturdays and Sundays we mostly ate fried fish and steak, so I also became to like them as him …

Byambajav -

Did you go often fishing? While you were in a rural area?

Mönhtüvshin -

My father used to go. I did once accompany him.

Nanzai -

Oh, he did go(fishing).

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, he used to go (fishing), with the Russians. At that time there were many Russians, in the Tsagaan Khuaran…

Byambajav -

Yes.

Mönhtüvshin -

At that period there were also many Chinese. Yes, there were many Chinese living in our street.

Byambajav -

In which year?

Mönhtüvshin -

It was in 70 something, there were many of them around the year 77 or 78.

Nanzai -

It was not in 70s, a bit earlier.

Narmandah -

You mean when we were in Tsagaan Khuran?

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, yes when I was 7, 8 years old. Then the “Moon cake” festival lasted for almost a month, it was in 70s, that cake was wonderful. The cake Chinese made during the month of “moon cake” holiday was very tasty, they made a lot of it, in modern days it is a kind of cake…

Nanzai -

Brown cake,

Mönhtüvshin -

Oh, they made wonderful cake, then there was vegetable soup, my father used to visit Chinese canteens to eat that soup. (0-21-25) He liked very much that soup and fish. He also went on fishing trips. Then in those days, apparently, fish was abundant. In winter they made a hole in the ice, punched a hole in the ice and put their hooks in it, it was then that I remember, clearly, I accompanied my father once. I now remember that. He used to go together with Russians. And they took the fish out, Russians like fish very much, they fried and ate the fish, it was how they consumed it. That time, generally, they ate very much.

Nanzai -

When they were young we took the children on hiking treks in mountains, it was our hobby. Even today, if opportunities present I would like to hike outdoors, but there is no time and possibility to do so. Actually, I like to pick wild berries and hike in forest and mountains, We went for picking wild berries several times. I would like to tell you how we once went to pick berries.(Laughs) We were at the summer camp in the mouth of the Yargait valley, then one evening my late husband came, it was a time when there cars were rare, he was a chairman of an organization and he had 69 (Russian jeep) and took the car any time to any place. So one evening without previous planning together with our neighbours, the couple and their children as well as we went together to pick up berries. To Sanzai…

Mönhtüvshin -

What do you mean Sanzai valley.

Nanzai -

No, Baga Bayan, southern slope of Baga Bayan..

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes. We went there.

Nanzai -

We went to Baga Bayan.

Mönhtüvshin -

Oogii was not born.

Nanzai -

She was not born yet.

Mönhtüvshin -

She was not born. Baagii was very small.

Nanzai -

Including Baagii, three of you.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, three of us were.

Byambajav -

Was elder sister Naraa there?

Nanzai -

Of course, she was there, three of them.

Narmandah -

I was there. (0-23-03)

Nanzai -

Yes, these three were there.

Mönhtüvshin -

Then, over there we, most importantly, find that

Nanzai -

Oogii was not born.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, Oogii was not born.

Nanzai -

Then,

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, we were camped in the mouth of Yargait.

Narmandah -

That was when we were in Ulaan khuaran of October district …

Mönhtüvshin -

I used to play chess when I was 5 years old. If I tell somebody, probably, he would not believe and think that I am lying.

Nanzai -

No, not October but it was the summer camp of Sühbaatar district. In summer camp, so suddenly one evening from the summer camp we went Baga Bayan so we reached in evening a very wet rather swampy spot. It was beautiful, the mountain was in blue haze jus like that…

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, red bilberry and such...

Nanzai -

Not bilberry but blueberry,

Mönhtüvshin -

Blueberry, yes…

Nanzai -

It was a very flat, indeed a very nice spot, it was mouth watering that evening we picked just a little bit and ate, the children were small, and we arrived to spend the night there. That evening we put out tent, that we took with us.

Mönhtüvshin -

So you took your tent with you

Nanzai -

So we erected the tent, the children were playing noisily, we cooked and ate our evening meal so we were about to go to bed, then suddenly the child of our friend started vomiting, it was a small child and swallowed back the vomitus and began to choke, vomitus apparently blocked the windpipe, so the child was in a terrible situation so we forgot about the berries and swiftly dismantled the tent and came back. Then the child was taken directly to a hospital, I don’t know how they removed that blockage, my husband was a doctor, so….

Mönhtüvshin -

You did not go…

Nanzai -

Of course, I went.

Mönhtüvshin -

I doubt that you went to town.

Nanzai -

No, we went altogether, of course you remained at home, that baby got well and I took my children and went again to the same location I told my husband to take me after 3 days, (0-24-53) come after me in 3 days, my husband took me over there, we put the tent up, my late husband went back with the car. He said he would come back after 3 days to take us home. We went out...

Mönhtüvshin -

Then we could not find water.

Nanzai -

We went out in search of water but there was not water,

Byambajav -

Oh, Hiudii [swearing, literally: oh baggy, Oh, shit]

Mönhtüvshin -

So we took water from the muddy water of tracks left by the vehicle and boiled to prepare tea.

Nanzai -

So we put aside picking berries and searched for water for the whole day, till night, when there is no water there is no life. Then we went to sleep everyone was afraid, an old man accompanied us, he was coughing badly through out the night, when he started coughing we were all awakened, then here and there birds and other animals made strange sounds, it was very unpleasant.

Mönhtüvshin -

In the forest it is not very pleasant, when look around,

Nanzai -

So we spent somehow three nights there until he came back to take us away. Well, we had not picked up that much berries, when we came back after 3 days that spot was almost stripped off the berries, it was picked almost bare.

Mönhtüvshin -

At that time, it was not like today, now there are no berries. Yes, that time we went to that place 2-3 km deep (and picked berries), no such thing today.

Nanzai -

Now, some of the trees are broken and the rest are cut thus the forest has been ruined…

Mönhtüvshin -

At the present the trees are almost gone…

Nanzai -

Well, this is how we once went to pick berries, besides when my late husband was working in that hospital, the hospital of Airag treatment he was the doctor on duty one night, so when he was on duty I came to him and on Sunday, went to pick wild berries. I arrived there and together with Baagii and others went further. I usually took with me two of them Baagii, not really Bagii but this girl, Naraa also accompanied me once or twice, don’t you think so?

Narmandah -

Yes.

Nanzai -

Yes. You were with me.

Narmandah -

Yes, we went Eastward once.

Nanzai -

So I decided to visit him while he was on duty and go out to pick some berries, and spend a night there that poor Uranchimeg was accompanying me. And when we were picking berries, thunder was rumbling. It was thundering loudly, we were picking berries in the forest and did not pay any attention to rain or storm nor to anything happening around us, we did not even look up, we fully applied ourselves to gathering berries. Then suddenly hail storm poured down on the mountain, in no time it was covered by the hails and turned white just like being covered by snow. Our clothes were fully soaked, the hail started melting and water was running down everywhere, when we started to descend that ice, that ice of hails were too slippery and it was almost impossible to walk down. We had climbed very higher and it was very hard to come down and we almost perished there. So we descended and barely reached the hospital of airag treatment, the hospital of your late father if your father was not there we could have frozen to death. So as soon we came in our clothes were stripped off and we were wrapped in quilts, so that was how two of us went to pick berries, when I used to go to pick berries we mostly went together…

Narmandah -

Our mother did not care about it.

Nanzai -

Discouraged. No. Generally, If there is the opportunity I would like very much to go. This summer I wanted to get out once but could not.

Byambajav -

Elder sister Naraa, if you remember could you tell your story of picking berries?

Narmandah -

That time we went to that very East and picked the black currant, that of black currant….

Nanzai -

Yes. We brought black currants (0-28-04),

Narmandah -

Yeah…

Nanzai -

Yes. Black currant..

Narmandah -

Yeah, so we picked a lot berries, mother used to disappear, at one moment I’d be beside the mother and next moment she’d be gone, she was just like mountain goat… (all laughed) and suddenly appeared on the top of the mountain like mountain goat, my husband says our mother is so agile that if you two were to race you, obviously, can not catch up with her. My mother is very good at climbing and walking in mountain, in general, in earlier days we used to trek a lot.

Nanzai -

When the father was alive we trekked a lot, in Gachuurt once I trekked and came across a spot with berries, we used to trek very much. I, since my childhood used to walk a lot.

Narmandah -

Trekking in mountains is very nice, you feel refreshed and in high spirits,

Nanzai -

Last time I also went to pick berries when your father was at that place, at that very place, I went after him it was a month before, your father fell ill, just one month before. We are such stange people,

Narmandah -

At Airag treatment hospital or that very Welfare centre in Batsumber aimag …

Nanzai -

When he was the chairman of the Welfare Centre, my poor late husband was feeling not well, in general, he was in rather low spirit and physically weak. Your father visited Doctor in September, so it was 2 months before it, 2 months before, may be one month before, we, from that very… went further on horse back.

Narmandah -

Train station…

Nanzai -

No, no, from the Welfare Centre we rode on back of horse and we reached a place with plenty of berries picked them and came back. When I came my friends who were to come from the city had already arrived there. So your poor father cooked meat and was busy hosting them. So my dear friends told me: “What shall we do he is very weak”. At that time he had lost weight and was very feeble.(0-30-13) So I arrived at the spot on horse back, then since I had not ridden horse for long time, when I arrived on horse I could not dismount it. (Laughed) My legs were numb, I rode quite long distance. I covered a very long distance since I left early in the morning, it was 5 or 6 o’clock of the morning. So I didn’t know exactly what time it was we reached a spot with berries and when I wanted to dismount from the horse I was unable dismount, the place was full of berries, looking at them I can’t but had dismount. (Laughs) So my friends actually lifted me off the horse so I somehow dismounted and for while was kneeling down then seeing the berries I forgot about my legs, got up and started picking the berries(Laughs) thus we gathered berries. That was inevitable because I had not ride horse for many years, I like very much wild berries, if possible I would like to go pick them up, unfortunately, it is not possible. (Laughs) Why poor little darling of her Mother (small yellow kid-meaning the youngest and ) is keeping silent. Please speak something, about your mother…

Byambajav -

It is because when she was not yet born … when you we were picking berries …

Nanzai -

No, well, let’s now put aside the berries, speak about something else (Laughs) Put aside the berries, when we picked berries we encountered a lot of adventures. Various things happened.

Odmandah -

I think I once went for berries, do you?

Nanzai -

Where did you go?

Odmandah -

I went to pick bird cherry [moilon].

Nanzai -

Oh, yes. We went to pick up bird cherry.

Odmandah -

We went on horse drawn cart.

Nanzai -

Aan, yes, we went on a horse cart, the spot of bird berries were not far, it was not far from the Welfare centre. So we sat on a rather poor horse drawn cart, we also went on sleigh…

Odmandah -

No, we rode on horse cart. I was keeping the reign and guiding the horse.

Nanzai -

Oh, did you really do?

Odmandah -

Yes.

Nanzai -

Was it you?

Narmandah -

And guiding the horse? (Laughs)

Odmandah -

Yes. (Laughs)

Nanzai -

We arrived from here and took that horse cart to proceed further.

Odmandah -

Yes.

Nanzai -

Yes, since your father was there and he was the chairman, the staff would mobilize whatever possibilities they had and took us and proceeded further to the spot, so those dear men (laughs)

Odmandah -

Yes, it was. In earlier days there were not too many cars, so my poor father rode on a 69 (Russian jeep) with a sign tjat said “Keep your distance” on its side, yeah?

Nanzai -

Well, he received that 69 when he was in the hospital for treatment by Airag, aa…

Narmandah -

In hospital for transport workers…

Nanzai -

[check this:] I was presented when first Hospital for Transport Workers was constructed, the 69 was given as a present from the Auto-transport operation depot No.5. In the beginning it was a nice new car but later after being driving for long time it became rather old, but still in reasonably good shape.

Narmandah -

Anyway, there were not so many cars.

Nanzai -

Vehicles were very rare. There were not many different types of vehicles. (0-32-51)

Mönhtüvshin -

There were no private, no private cars.

Nanzai -

Almost none, there were almost no private cars.

All -

Yes, almost none.

Mönhtüvshin -

Then only later from 90’s privately owned cars appeared, before that only 24 (Russian car Volga 24) and 69 (Jeep) were seen … (Spoke simultaneously)

Narmandah -

And Zil – 130 were seen.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yeah.

Nanzai -

Generally, the number of cars grew very rapidly.

Narmandah -

After 90’s …

Mönhtüvshin -

That is how the period of market relations came in... (0-33-24) different vehicles were brought in, from many different places,

Nanzai -

Well, that is how we are living, now we doing okay, in fact we all doing fine, my children all have their own independent life and job. I now assume that I have nothing to worry about. Since my children are now able to pursue their own livelihood, I have accomplished my job, I raised my children, they all got education. And I am confident that they will be helping their mother. And anyway now they are telling me, now mother you should not work, you should be sitting (resting) at home, we’ll arrange everything for you, send you to rest home (0-34-16) bring your food, medicine and injections, there is no need for you to work. However, it is not very convenient all the day to sit alone at home. I would like to do some work. As of now I feel fairly healthy, I have no chronic illness, my hands and legs are good, therefore sitting idle at home is not good for me. That is why I am thinking of doing some job suitable for me if such an opportunity is available.

Byambajav -

Do you want that your mother works?

Odmandah -

Sometimes I do think that it may be better. (All laugh) Mother now often falls ill, when you often fall ill it is better for you to have some collective (people of shared interest). When you are working, at least, when some holiday occurs, you will not be sitting alone at home, therefore it is better to be among some people with whom you share common interest.

Nanzai -

Yes, it is.

Narmandah -

Actually, I am thinking of finding some job for my mother.

Nanzai -

Your mother has already found her job. (All laugh)

Byambajav -

For anyone who worked for the whole life sitting at home without any job…

бүгд -

It is very difficult.

Odmandah -

Yes, when you return home in the evening mother says I have some pain here or I am feeling not very well, something is wrong…

Nanzai -

Yes, when you sit at home like this, at least, your blood pressure goes up and you fall ill often when sit at home without doing anything you contact illness frequently, if you are busily engaged in work you don’t pay any attention to minor illness. But now fall …

Odmandah -

Salary is not important, if she works that is fine. Yes.

Nanzai -

Yes, I found a job today, from tomorrow I shall start working.

Odmandah -

Where? (All laugh) what job?

Nanzai -

In any case, the wife your brother Byambaa found for me a job, two of them.

Odmandah -

Oh, well.

Nanzai -

Yes, from tomorrow on your mother will start learning now that… Now when I am over 60 (All laugh) will start learning. (All laugh)

Odmandah -

It is good, good.

Nanzai -

Well, now I have something to tell my children.(coughs) We are now doing fine but we should advance ahead little by little. We can’t be complacent with the thought our family is doing satisfactory. You should make good use of your free time and study foreign language without knowing some foreign language it is now very difficult to achieve something. In my view you should according to your own abilities learn more, educate and enrich yourselves, this is the imperative. Now, take Muugii he is, no more than a driver(0-36-52) but now drivers are everywhere, everyone who has some job to do has mastered the profession of driver. You should acquire another skill except this one, if you stop driving car then how will you earn your bread, so you should obtain one more skill of living, this is a thought that I keep in my mind. Well, now if possible I think of sending him abroad (for work) but we don’t have influential acquaintances who could solve this issue for us, so I only entertain the hope to send him abroad, in addition to it, now to do anything you have to spend a lot of money, say if someone helps as go between in that travel abroad, you need the money they say. If he were to go then it is a different matter, but, in any case, we can not just sit like this at home all the time we should educate ourselves, and at least one should learn a foreign language then it would be easier to get various kinds of job here or there. Then if you don’t take up physical or manual work then knowledge of foreign language can earn living for you, now people talk a lot about this year as the year of tourism. So every passing year is different, it has its own peculiarity. There is the opportunity to take advantage of these peculiarities and find job. I would like to say to Munguu learn foreign language good. (0-38-13) I don’t know whether he is learning language or not, he says he studying the language, true or not how I would know. Aa , then about Oogii, Oogii is very busy, work till night, her work load is heavy. However, I think she also should educate herself. Now, since there is the computer, probably, she has already became very skilful on it. But she should study a foreign language, you are still young, after learning language you should go abroad to work, you should not spend your life walking between the office and your home. Learning a foreign language is wonderful, I would only say this to my children. There is no exception for Naraa. She can’t go far with that private business, yeah, so you should think it over carefully, you have two children, this year the eldest son is finishing the 10 year school. Right now she is very busy. So you should seriously reflect over how to live better than you are today, and what to do, and how to work.

Byambajav -

What would you like to say to your younger siblings?

Narmandah -

Hn, not that …aa our father and mother had raised good and brought up us very good. I find out about it, while speaking to outsiders here and there and I also think that our parents did not let us feel short of anything, they did not let us feel short of education and brought up and made equals with the rest of men. So, now, I will say to my younger brothers and sisters that as the saying goes “If the master and determined the fate will follow the lead.”, therefore, you should develop and educate yourselves thoroughly, you should not think that you are getting old or at present we are in such a (sad) state when people who are 60, 70 years old, talk about living much longer as if they would almost live almost up to 100 years, so these people are very optimistic and enjoy life fully. But we young people are inclined to think that well, what shall we do, we are getting old. I wanted to say this should not be the case. (0-40-32)

Nanzai -

But you are doing fine, look at her. (Laughs) She really work hard, learns to…

Narmandah -

Yes…

Nanzai -

And generate ideas…

Narmandah -

I’ll expand further my present business and then I’ll pay more attention to my education and training, otherwise it is getting difficult me for. All what I had learned before, had been used up, the in private business you go out in the morning and come back during the night only to get up the next morning and work, so this is a monotonous life. But anyway…

Nanzai -

In general, private business seems to distance you from the collective [hamt olon] ...

Narmandah -

Yeah,

Nanzai -

It seems to be the case. In public and various organizations on state budget, where there is a collective, the situation is different. In small private business you employ a few people. Of course(0-41-23) if you employ many people then probably a collective will be formed, when there are only a few people there is no collective. Our Narmandakh, since her graduation from the institute, was engaged exclusively in private business.

Narmandah -

Now, we are-children-who graduated from institutes. However, we don’t have good contacts,

Nanzai -

Then our Naraa and her husband, both of them are no different, no different, these two are too modest, they don’t go to various places, meet and discuss business with different people as many capable people do, be hither and thither and establish contacts with various people. There is nothing of this sort with them, they silently pursue their own business.

Narmandah -

Acumen…

Nanzai -

Shall I say they lack acumen and shrewdness,

Narmandah -

We lack that brightness and perceptiveness of character…

Nanzai -

Too much of that is not necessary,

Odmandah -

That is an unnecessary character.

Nanzai -

It may be unnecessary but now you should give some thought to it as well. Yes, it is. Now, I think of Odmandakh, she is also too modest, this Odmandakh of ours. At glance she is looks as if a very angry person but really she is very modest. At her work she will do anything the people over there told her to do.

Mönhtüvshin -

She can’t but do it.

Nanzai -

No, no, it does not matter, but at the same time she should display a certain acumen and perceptiveness. At least…

Mönhtüvshin -

Hn, that is how she is like our mother.

Nanzai -

Why, that is what I am saying. I am a person in my decline, my time has passed, now you …

Mönhtüvshin -

But, in any case, I am bright… (Laughed) that is why I think that I am more like the people on father’s side. I am like my father, and not very bad. I can establish contact with people,

Nanzai -

Originally, you have been not very bad, unfortunately, now, you are not making use that good character of yours, this Munkhoo of ours . Yes, he is not making any use of it. Otherwise, if you are really like your father, you must have been able to make your living much better.

Mönhtüvshin -

Well, well, I doing not too bad at all.

Odmandah -

He never admits his shortcomings,(Laughed) never admits. When we say something…

Nanzai -

Yes.

Odmandah -

He never admits but argues back that he is right.

Nanzai -

It is true.

Odmandah -

That is why what he is now,

Nanzai -

There were two or three younger brothers of my late husband. Those poor boys are all gone now. Of the younger… brother was a driver, yes, apparently, he imitated him to a great extent. This Moogii, yeah,

Narmandah -

Yes, he resembles that who...

Nanzai -

Since his childhood he followed his example very much and always teased and mocked some one and made the person to get angry …

Mönhtüvshin -

Made people to resent…

Nanzai -

He always prevailed over someone. Always he come over someone verbally. (0-44-16)

Mönhtüvshin -

Verbally

Nanzai -

Yes, it is. For example, if Oogii and me were to play he is delighted only after mocking and getting on her nerves. (Laughed) It is an ugly behavour, a habit of him, should I say inherited. (Laughed), there was such a fellow and he tried to be like him…

Mönhtüvshin -

…That is the genes in my blood and that is why I am just like him. (Laughs)

Nanzai -

Actually, on my side there is no such thing. He, apparently, looks and acts more the people on his father’s side.

Mönhtüvshin -

This one, this shit is also the same (Laughs), she is ridiculing others while she is exactly the same. She ridicules someone little by little and gets over that one and then a lot of anger (Laughs) delighted only after ridiculing our youngsters. If you look, generally, we are all the same …

Nanzai -

Well, do you have anything more…?

Mönhtüvshin -

Well, I don’t have anything to add, I thank you for arranging this interview. And wish great success in your future activities. Aan, I thank you very much for taking interview from everyone.

Byambajav -

The interview has not yet come to an end.

Nanzai -

(Laughs) I am going to end, (Laughs) okay, if there is anything more to tell let them do it while we proceed,

Byambajav -

At the moment when socialism came to the end and democracy began you were all in the city and it probably brought substantial changes in your life? Would you share your impressions of that time between yourselves.

Narmandah -

It was exactly a transitional period, isn’t it?

Nanzai -

It started from 90’s,

Narmandah -

Yes, it was a transitory period, isn’t it?

Nanzai -

Yes, as for us during the time of democratic (revolution)… since it was not really so bad or dreadful, it was not really the case and everything was going on normally in the past we were put in rather awkward situation. So in beginning, the democrats came to the Squire, then there was a hunger strike, meetings and gathering were organized, people asked each other what was happening, it was really the situation every one had faced. Some part of the population were at loss regarding what really had happened. So as in that very film “In the Lair” when one was shot he asked “Is this a nightmare”, just like that some said “is this a dream”. A similar thing happened.

Narmandah -

In autumn of 90 we, two of us were married and gave a wedding party, the party was over and when we after that visited the shelves of the stores were completely empty, there was nothing except some pack of brown salt, it was what happened, wasn’t it?

Odmandah -

Then food [ration] coupons were introduced,

Nanzai -

Yes, food coupons were introduced and afterwards food stuff had become scarce,

Narmandah -

So people were saying that shops in suburbs were stocked with goods and those from the centre of the city rushed to the shops in the suburbs, then there, also, was nothing except salt,

Nanzai -

How it happened that great stock of goods disappeared …

Narmandah -

There was only a 2 tögrög pack of salt…

Nanzai -

Yes, yes, how so suddenly…

Narmandah -

Well, people bought and did what, people hoarded the provisions,

Nanzai -

Bought and apparently stored them.

Narmandah -

Stored them, yeah? May be they thought that price will go up or else who knows.

Nanzai -

Yeah,

Byambajav -

Resolution No. 20 was adopted.

Nanzai -

Yes. Resolution No.20, that resolution No. 20 caused a genuine devastation.

Narmandah -

Those who knew bought and apparently stored. Hoarded in stores. But during this market you can do whatever you like, the time to do so has arrived. Originally, democracy…

Nanzai -

Well, that is now…,

Narmandah -

(Democracy) gave us a lot of good things.

Nanzai -

Yes.

Narmandah -

Yeah. In market economy, it is free for any one to engage in whatever an individual can do, it gave that freedom. I think market economy requires the ability of a person to take up anything that the given individual can do and can conceive. An individual should exert his efforts to succeed, therefore you should educate yourself and be knowledgeable, otherwise, a weak person, no matter how hard he tries will never succeed.

Nanzai -

During the socialist period, most importantly, everything was owned by the state. The state provided everything to these numerous organizations…

Narmandah -

Everyone wore the same clothes,

Nanzai -

When there were state (public)organizations, if there is a state organization, salaries, all other amenities were provided from the state. But later, in this market economy, most of the organisations have been privatized, most of them.

Narmandah -

In general…

Nanzai -

Mostly private, at present nearly all of them have been privatized, since they are private organizations, in comparison with the socialist period, their functions are truly different, it is only natural. Since they are privately owned, privatized, workers in such organizations are mostly young people, being private organizations they employ relatives and their acquaintances(of the owners), they will not hire just any one from the street who is looking for job.

Narmandah -

Selection aspect has become very stringent,

Nanzai -

Yes, so a person without job but who has no acquaintances(0:50:21) or individuals who have a few or no relatives are unemployed, this is the situation in my opinion. Well, if what now this Jargalsaikhan is talking about will be implemented then probably many young people will get the opportunity to have a job. Apparently he is planning to bring in many industrial enterprises, what else did he say?

Mönhtüvshin -

So he has become the Minister of Industry and Trade and but now he says that he will not allow export of cashmere from Mongolia.

Nanzai -

He says we shall process that cashmere then export, export after processing. In order to process that cashmere numerous number of workers are required. Production operation at the enterprise means that plenty of workers, young people will get job. He said another big enterprise which would employ 15 thousands workers will be imported, from Italy he was saying. If that will be done the industrial District will be populated again. At present, the Industrial District has become almost vacant place. There were many enterprises there, when I was working in Youth League, those industrial enterprises were running at full force, how wonderful it was. Now all those people crowding in the 3rd district were working in those enterprises and lived in that district. In those days, there was the Worker’s district. It was teeming with the people. And now all those enterprises had been privatized and it had, apparently, become impossible to re-establish them. Only a few building are still left. If now those enterprises were opened and these industrial enterprise will start their operation again it could solve the problem. In this manner those who hold high offices start doing something, it will be fine, Jargalsaikhan himself was responsible for the operation of industrial production and knows how to do it.

Narmandah -

Then, evidently, period of industrialization will begin, now.

Nanzai -

Now, it will, obviously, begin, judging from what they talk about it appears that it will begin. In any case people will not be going abroad in search for job and suffer, they can work here.

Byambajav -

Well, how do you think to live in future, what role exactly all of you are going to play in your future life, what role that you will play will impact on your brothers and sisters, shall we now speak about the ways to improve your life? Well, I want this young girl who is keeping silent to speak.

Nanzai -

Why are you sitting silent?

Narmandah -

Oogii please speak out your opinion, youth have probably different views.

Nanzai -

Young woman active in service should be different, as for me your mother is, now, finished. I can’t even speak coherently, I am eaten by rust, in general, 2 years…

Narmandah -

All are going abroad to work …

Odmandah -

Because they have good acquaintances and friends,

Nanzai -

Do you think migrating abroad is feasible?

Odmandah -

If you have many acquaintances and friends…

Narmandah -

Abroad…

Odmandah -

If you succeed at your post and work more creatively you can live nicely and enjoy life.

Nanzai -

No matter what regardless of acquaintances and friends I hope you will find a job and migrate abroad,

Odmandah -

Anyway acquaintances and friends…

Nanzai -

At present, it is so.

Odmandah -

Without them, it is impossible now.

Nanzai -

At present, this is the situation.

Odmandah -

You may migrate but you don’t have acquaintances there, then you are trapped there.

Nanzai -

It is the case. It is impossible, there are too many stages..

Odmandah -

It is important that we should educate ourselves very well.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, it is true, predicament begins from the lowest level (of administration), according to one report at one place with gold deposit, I don’t remember where, the chairman of the sub-district had more power than his superiors. Now the Governor of the district...

Nanzai -

Yes, it is. Actually, it is…

Mönhtüvshin -

Everything is blocked at the lowest level, so, in general, obstacles are created at the lowest level, officials at lowest level yield so much power which is almost equal that of the Prime Minister. The anchor of the TV broadcast “Journey with backpack” said that in order to build a small storage on his compound one he had to receive permission of the chairman of the sub-district,

Nanzai -

Yes, it is so.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes.

Nanzai -

That…

Mönhtüvshin -

Permission from the sub-district, no, we will not do that. Building a storage or something else in my own fence is not the business of others. We can build on our own money anything we like, this is in our country, but there, it is said that in order to repaint your fence or house in white or green colour you have to receive the permission to do so.

Nanzai -

Where? Aan, in that foreign country?

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, in what country it was …

Nanzai -

Well, it means the administrative unit, the primary unit has such high responsibility…

Mönhtüvshin -

Such a responsibility …

Nanzai -

… It means that they can decide certain issues at the level of such lower administrative unit, that is something we don’t have today in our country. .

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes.

Nanzai -

Yes, things start moving from the lower level, it goes and goes and until it reaches the top level and dropped there, regardless how good and optimistic undertaking it was, how much endeavour and effort that person put into it, it is killed just by one person up there.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes.

Nanzai -

This is the mid level…

Mönhtüvshin -

… this is exactly what happens. As far as the acquaintances and friends are concerned, this is what I have told you, you have to get the signatures starting from the chairman of sub-district, and if you don’t have an acquaintance there he will not give his signature, it is exactly the same thing.

Nanzai -

Well, tell me. He is asking how are you going to work in future.

Narmandah -

May be I’ll migrate abroad to work, but I’ll also study,

Mönhtüvshin -

Even if I were to die I’ll never migrate abroad. The sole firm thought I have is I’ll never migrate, this is what I think, in future…

Nanzai -

I intended to send him abroad but this shit is not going there.

Mönhtüvshin -

Oh, no, I’ll not go. It is unreliable, extremely unreliable.

Nanzai -

But your sister Alimaa wants to send you to Japan,

Mönhtüvshin -

If I were to go there, I’ll go.

Nanzai -

Then, isn’t that a foreign country? What a strange person.

Narmandah -

Actually, if you could go abroad get some education, see it (the country)and come back …

Mönhtüvshin -

Actually the main thing is to see a foreign country, I’ll be not so bent to make a lot of money and come back. I’ll work. (0-56-47) At the same time I would see that country, if I could do that it is enough.

Nanzai -

Well, you could earn some money…

Mönhtüvshin -

My paternal aunt…if my paternal aunt could send me, my eldest paternal aunt…

Narmandah -

So you will migrate abroad…

Mönhtüvshin -

If my paternal aunt can, I’ll go.

Narmandah -

May be you will be building a factory. Yeah.

Mönhtüvshin -

Any way I don’t understand, now China makes very good shoes and export to Mongolia, Mongols export a hide and import one pair of shoes for it. A braggart would say they (Chinese)make numerous shoes by that single hide and export to Mongolia, as mother mentioned earlier Jargalsaikhan …

Nanzai -

Did you forget what I just told you. It is said that they are going to import a shoe making factory from Italy.

Mönhtüvshin -

Yes, it is.

Narmandah -

Then we would process here (the raw materials) and make finished products in our country.

Mönhtüvshin -

That is it, if we could do exactly that instead of exporting the hides to China, we could buy the hides here exactly by the same price as the Chinese do and produce here. Chinese are buying the hide but the imported shoes cost as much as the hide.

Nanzai -

Let’s finish this discussion, this doesn’t matter for us. We are talking about our private life, what can we do to improve our livelihood.

Mönhtüvshin -

Well, as for me, I’ll…

Nanzai -

Well, actually, as a result of every one’s initiative the country will advance and develop. It is true that the endeavour and determination of every one contribute towards the end. However, what shall we ourselves will do? Shall we continue as now, and one by one mind our own business?

Mönhtüvshin -

As for me, if paternal aunt succeeds I’ll go. I would see (foreign) country, learn its language and culture, as mother said I’ll perfect my clean habit and come back. Our home is very clean. Mönhoo picks up even if there is a match stick. (Laughs)

Nanzai -

He is making a lot of what I have said earlier as a praise.

Narmandah -

Well, now, in a year or two I would like to build up my business and put it firmly on its feet because this is only at the beginning. It is at a very early stage I intend to upgrade and expand it. While I’ll be engaged in it after two, three years we can figure out what to do next. Yeah.

Nanzai -

This, I had, recently, built a two storey house expanding the earlier tea house. Then that house as of today….

Narmandah -

Gradually, we can enlarge that house and make it 4, 5 storey.

Nanzai -

Yes, upgrade it a little bit (0-59-09) and spend the winter there …

Narmandah -

If I would put it firmly on its feet, expand and improve. Then the opportunity to study and educate myself will come, isn’t it?

Nanzai -

When you have a workplace, you can work out what to do next.

Mönhtüvshin -

Elder sister should make that house 4, 5 storey, it will be the future of my sister.

Narmandah -

Yes

Mönhtüvshin -

I am going to say that it will, probably, be the future.

Nanzai -

Yes, yes, it is. In general, the main thing is to do that.

Mönhtüvshin -

Actually if you were to add new storey, this would mean that there is development in Mongolia, and at least a house would go up.

Narmandah -

Then our Bagii will listen to this broadcast when he comes back, Baagii…,

Odmandah -

You mean this interview?

Narmandah -

Yes, interview, so I want to say that I am very grateful to my (brother)Baagii

Nanzai -

Then this Dash…

Narmandah -

Our Bagii is really a person with golden hands (with touch of magic), I want to say your sister is very grateful to you. (Laughs)

Nanzai -

You may add that to your sister's words.

Narmandah -

He will listen this interview of ours, isn’t he?

Nanzai -

Of course, he will listen, he said he will give us the recording. Well, now Odmandakh…

Odmandah -

Well, what I have achieved and what I have now, graduated from two Universities, I did thanks to the generous assistance of my family and their help and I want to say that I am always very grateful for that.

Mönhtüvshin -

Well, as for me I would like to say thank you very much to my brother-in-law.

Nanzai -

You said it before how often you have to say it.

Mönhtüvshin -

Oh, yes.

Byambajav -

Well, I thank you all for the sparing so much of your time and giving me this interview from the bottom of your heart.

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Interviews, transcriptions and translations provided by The Oral History of Twentieth Century Mongolia, University of Cambridge. Please acknowledge the source of materials in any publications or presentations that use them.