Mongolia is a landlocked country surrounded by China and its autonomous regions to the south, east and west and by Russia and ex-Soviet republics to the north.

It is the most sparsely populated country in the world with less than 3 million people. It has little productive arable land and vast areas of steppe, mountains and the Gobi Desert where about 30% of the population are nomadic herders. In recent years mining has become a major industry with minerals becoming the largest export sector and the increased opportunities in the region are drawing attention across the world as Mongolia makes a rapid transition to the global stage.